The Transtheoretical Model
Another theory that could be useful in engaging parents with behaviour change is the Transtheoretical Model. This theoretical model was initially developed, by James Prochaska and Carlo Diclemente in the late 1970s, to aid smoking cessation, and includes a number of constructs, aiming to move individuals away from a negative behaviour to a positive behaviour (e.g. from smoking to non-smoking). This model has borrowed constructs and ideas from a number of other theories and includes the following constructs; Stages of change (the stage at which a person is relating to behaviour change – please see below), Decisional Balance (pros and cons of behaviour), self-efficacy (the ability of someone to perceive that they have the skills to change a behaviour), and the processes of change (activities to support the movement between stages). The stages of change are each stage that an individual can move through, from pre-contemplation (not even considering enacting a different behaviour) through contemplation and preparation to action (acting out the new behaviour) and maintenance (maintaining the new behaviour). This construct is cyclical and allows for relapses into the old behaviour, where the individual would then join again at the pre-contemplation or contemplation stage, as well as moving forwards and backwards through stages.
The processes of change components are also important and are headlines for activities that can be undertaken to support behaviour change. In the table below are descriptions for each process of change component. How these are actually practised is up to the campaign. For instance consciousness raising could be realised through a direct mail or promotion to raise awareness, whereas counter-conditioning, could occur where messages and facts supporting the new behaviour and proving that the old behaviour is unhealthy are offered to target audiences.
Apart from smoking cessation, TTM has been used for drinking, drug use, exercise, healthy eating, mammography screening, and sun protection, as well as in increasing walking amongst previously inactive groups. Any behaviour can be mapped against TTM. There are accusations of a lack of proof that the TTM is really effective, but like other models, by covering off all these areas, the campaigning work will have some value.